COMPUTER NOTES

Computer – Some Short-Cut Keys

Some basic Keys Common Tasks

  • Ctrl + Shift + Spacebar – Create a non breaking space
  • Ctrl + B – Make letters bold
  • Ctrl + I – Make letters italic
  • Ctrl + U – Make letters underline
  • Ctrl + Shift+ < – Decrease font size one value
  • Ctrl + Shift + > – Increase the font size one value
  • Ctrl + [ – Increase the font size by 1 point
  • Ctrl + ] – Decrease the font size by 1 point
  • Ctrl + Spacebar – Remove paragraph or character formatting.
  • Ctrl + C – Copy the selected text or object
  • Ctrl + X – Cut the selected text or object
  • Ctrl + V – Paste text or an object
  • Ctrl + Alt + V – Paste special
  • Ctrl + Shift + V – Paste formatting only
  • Ctrl + Z – Undo the last action
  • Ctrl + Y – Redo the last action

Control – Keys + Function Keys

  • Ctrl+F2 – Choose the print preview command (Microsoft office Button)
  • Ctrl+F3 – Cut on the spike
  • Ctrl+F4 – Close the window
  • Ctrl+F6 – Go to the next window
  • Ctrl+F9 – Insert an empty field
  • Ctrl+F10 – Maximise the document window
  • Ctrl+F11 – Lock a field
  • Ctrl+F12 – Choose the Open command (Microsoft Office Button)

Function Keys

  • Ctrl+F2 – Choose the print preview command (Microsoft office Button)
  • Ctrl+F3 – Cut on the spike
  • Ctrl+F4 – Close the window
  • Ctrl+F6 – Go to the next window
  • Ctrl+F9 – Insert an empty field
  • Ctrl+F10 – Maximise the document window
  • Ctrl+F11 – Lock a field
  • Ctrl+F12 – Choose the Open command (Microsoft Office Button)
  • Ctrl+F2 – Choose the print preview command (Microsoft office Button)
  • Ctrl+F3– Cut on the spike
  • Ctrl+F4 – Close the window

Shortcut Keys of MS-Excel

  • F2 – Edit the selected cell
  • F5 – Go to a  specific cell
  • F7 – Spell check selected text and/or document
  • F11 – Create  chart
  • Ctrl + Shift + ; – Enter the current time
  • Ctrl + ; – Enter the current date
  • Shift + F3 – Open the Excel formula window
  • Shift + F5 – Bring up search box.
  • Ctrl + A – Select all contents of the worksheet
  • Ctrl + B – Bold highlighted selection
  • Ctrl + I – Italic highlighted selection
  • Ctrl + U – Underline highlighted selection
  • Ctrl + P – Bring up the print dialog box to begin printing
  • Ctrl + Z – Undo last action
  • Ctrl + F9 – Minimise current workbook
  • Ctrl + F10 – Maximise currently selected workbook
  • Ctrl + F6 – Switch between open workbooks/window
  • Ctrl + Page Up – Move between Excel worksheet in the same Excel document.
  • Ctrl + Page Down – Move between Excel worksheets in the same Excel document
  • Ctrl + Tab – Move between two or more open Excel files
  • Alt + = – Create a formula to sum all of the above cells
  • Ctrl + ’ – Insert the value of the above cell into cell currently selected.
  • Ctrl + Arrow key – Move to next section to text
  • Ctrl + Space – Select entire column
  • Shift + Space – Select entire row

Computer – Some Important Short Forms

Hello Readers,
Here we are presenting to you all the “Computer – Some Important Short Forms”.


  • GOOGLE : Global Organization Of Oriented Group Language Of Earth .
  • YAHOO : Yet Another Hierarchical Officious Oracle .
  • WINDOW : Wide Interactive Network Development for Office work Solution
  • COMPUTER : Common Oriented Machine Particularly United and used under Technical and Educational Research.
  • VIRUS : Vital Information Resources Under Siege .
  • UMTS : Universal Mobile Telecommunications System .
  • AMOLED: Active-matrix organic light-emitting diode
  • OLED : Organic light-emitting diode
  • IMEI: International Mobile Equipment Identity .
  • ESN: Electronic Serial Number .
  • UPS: uninterrupted power supply .
  • HDMI: High-Definition Multimedia Interface
  • VPN: virtual private network
  • APN: Access Point Name
  • SIM: Subscriber Identity Module
  • LED: Light emitting diode.
  • DLNA: Digital Living Network Alliance
  • RAM: Random access memory.
  • ROM: Read only memory.
  • VGA: Video Graphics Array
  • QVGA: Quarter Video Graphics Array
  • WVGA: Wide video graphics array.
  • WXGA: Wide screen Extended Graphics Array
  • USB: Universal serial Bus
  • WLAN: Wireless Local Area Network
  • PPI: Pixels Per Inch
  • LCD: Liquid Crystal Display.
  • HSDPA: High speed down-link packet access.
  • HSUPA: High-Speed Uplink Packet Access
  • HSPA: High Speed Packet Access
  • GPRS: General Packet Radio Service
  • EDGE: Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution
  • NFC: Near field communication
  • OTG: on-the-go
  • S-LCD: Super Liquid Crystal Display
  • O.S: Operating system.
  • SNS: Social network service
  • H.S: HOTSPOT
  • P.O.I: point of interest
  • GPS: Global Positioning System
  • DVD: Digital Video Disk / digital versatile disc
  • DTP: Desk top publishing.
  • DNSE: Digital natural sound engine .
  • OVI: Ohio Video Intranet
  • CDMA: Code Division Multiple Access
  • WCDMA: Wide-band Code Division Multiple Access
  • GSM: Global System for Mobile Communications
  • WI-FI: Wireless Fidelity
  • DIVX: Digital internet video access.
  • APK: authenticated public key.
  • J2ME: java 2 micro edition
  • DELL: Digital electronic link library.
  • ACER: Acquisition Collaboration Experimentation Reflection
  • RSS: Really simple syndication
  • TFT: thin film transistor
  • AMR: Adaptive Multi- Rate
  • MPEG: moving pictures experts group
  • IVRS: Interactive Voice Response System
DATA REPRESENTATION – 
Memory Units:
4 bit = 1 nibble
8 bit = 1 byte
1024 B = 1 KB (Kilo Byte)
1024 KB = 1 MB (Mega Byte)
1024 MB = 1 GB (Giga Byte)
1024 GB = 1 TB (Tera Byte)
1024 TB = 1 PB (Peta Byte)
1024 PB = 1 XB (Exa Byte)
1024 XB = 1 ZB (Zeta Byte)
1024 ZB = 1 YB (Yota Byte)
bit < Byte < KB < MB < GB < TB < PB < XB < ZB < YB
  • bit (b)
  • Byte (B)
Mbps – mega bits per sec.
MBps – mega Bytes per sec.
  • The information you put into the computer is called Data
  • Information of a computer is stored as Digital Data
  • A number system defines a set of values that is used to represent Quantity
  • In which number system, the modern computers are operated?

Binary Number System

  • Name the most significant bit, which represent 1 and 0 for a positive number and negative number, respectively.

Sign Bit

  • Which coding scheme represents data in a binary form in the computer system? ASCII, EBCDIC and Unicode are the most commonly used codes under this scheme.

Binary Coding Scheme

  • EBCDIC is a 8-Bit code with 256 different representations of characters. It is mainly used in mainframe computers.
  • EBCDIC stands for Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code
  • In the Hexadecimal Number System each number represents a power of 16. To represent the decimal numbers, this system uses numbers from 0 to 9 and characters from A to F to represent numbers 10-15, respectively. It is commonly used as a shortcut notation for groups of four binary digits
  • BCD is a method that represents the decimal digits with the help of binary digits. It takes advantage that one decimal numeral can be represented by 4-bit pattern. BCD stands for Binary Coded Decimal
  • This coding system is used to represent the interval storage area of the computers. In this system, every character is represented by a combination of bits. Binary Coding System
  • The Base or Radix of the decimal number system is 10
  • The arithmetic operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division) performed on the binary numbers is called Binary Arithmetic
  • What is the standard code the computer industry created to represent characters? American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII)
  • ASCII is a code used for standardizing the storage and transfer of information amongst various computing devices.
  • It is required for representing more than 64 characters. At present, the mostly used coding systems are ASCII and EBCDIC
  • Which code is also known as Reflected Code? Gray Code
  • The 7-bit ASCII code is widely used for Two (0 or 1)
  • In the binary language, each letter of the alphabet, each number and each special character is made up of a unique combination of Eight Bits.
GENERATIONS OF COMPUTER
  • Which was the first general purpose computer, designed to handle both numeric and textual information? Universal Automatic Computer (UNIVAC) (1951)

First Generation (1940-1956) Vacuum Tubes:

  • The first computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory, and were often enormous, taking up entire rooms.
  • The UNIVAC and ENIAC computers are examples of first-generation computing devices.
  • In first generation of computer, this operating system allowed only one program to run at a time and a number of input jobs are grouped for processing. It is known as Batch Processing.

Second Generation (1956-1963) Transistors:

  • Transistors replaced vacuum tubes and ushered in the second generation of computers.

Third Generation (1964-1971) Integrated Circuits:

  • The development of the integrated circuit was the hallmark of the third generation of computers. Transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon chips, called semiconductors, which drastically increased the speed and efficiency of computers.

Fourth Generation (1971-Present) Microprocessors:

  • The microprocessor brought the fourth generation of computers, as thousands of integrated circuits were built onto a single silicon chip.
  • What in the first generation filled an entire room could now fit in the palm of the hand
  • Fourth generation computers also saw the development of GUIs, the mouse and handheld devices

Fifth Generation (Present and Beyond) Artificial Intelligence:

  • Fifth generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence, are still in development, though there are some applications, such as voice recognition, that are being used today.
  • In 1981 IBM introduced its first computer for the home user, and in 1984 Apple introduced the Macintosh.

 

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